Camera casings are what keep the delicate electronics of a security camera protected from harsh weather conditions, as well as many other outdoor hazards. Without them a camera would not be durable enough to function for more than a few days at best.
The standard casings that are installed on security cameras are often up-gradable. With there being many replacement covers, as well as additional encasement options available from retailers. A better casing can not only improve the durability of a security camera, but also help it to function more effectively. A camera casing designed to shield against rain for example, will have a roof and lens that will deter rain water from obscuring the cameras vision, allowing it to function more effectively in these conditions.
Standard security cameras are not always factory installed with the best casings available, which allows them to be sold for less at stores. However, a high quality camera casing is often worth the extra investment.